Download Botulinum Toxins in Clinical Aesthetic Practice, Second by Anthony Benedetto PDF


By Anthony Benedetto

ISBN-10: 0415476364

ISBN-13: 9780415476362

Well illustrated with fine quality photographs, Botulinum pollution in medical Aesthetic Practice has confirmed itself a top-rated consultant to the medical use of other kinds of botulinum pollutants for either esthetic and scientific reasons.

This moment version keeps all of the positive factors that made its predecessor such a success, together with targeted anatomic drawings, a assessment of different formulations to be had, and specimen varieties. This version has been revised and up-to-date all through and lines extra new fabric on medico-legal issues and mental and cultural components that could have an effect on the intentions of sufferers and the implications that may be achieved.

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Additional resources for Botulinum Toxins in Clinical Aesthetic Practice, Second Edition

Sample text

It lies directly against the bone and just beneath the interdigitating muscle fibers of the orbicularis oculi, procerus, depressor supercilii, and frontalis medially and beneath interdigitating fibers of the frontalis and orbicularis oculi laterally (Fig. 9). 0 cm from the nasion (Fig. 10A,B) (19,21,23). 6 The ideal eyebrow of a man is less arched and lower set than a woman’s. 4 The peak of the arch of a female brow should be just above the lateral limbus. The tail of the brow should be on a horizontal plane 1–2 mm above the lowest point of its head.

Yet others consider it a separate and distinct muscle from the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii (25). The depressor supercilii is a small muscle that has been found to originate directly from bone as one or two distinct muscle heads from the nasal process of the frontal bone and the frontal process of the maxilla, approximately 10 mm above the medial canthal tendon (25). In cadaver dissections where the depressor supercilii originated as two separate heads, the angular vessels passed in between the two bundles of muscles (25).

The frontalis begins superiorly at the frontal scalp where the fibers originate from the galea aponeurotica, a fascial plane of the scalp that lies beneath the fat. The fibers of the frontalis extend vertically downward where they mesh with the skin and muscles at the eyebrow and glabella. The muscle actually has two halves; each separately innervated by the right and left temporal branches of the seventh cranial nerve. Thus, in the superior aspect of the midline forehead there is no muscle, but rather a fascial band or aponeurosis separating the two halves of the frontalis (3).

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