Download Basic physical chemistry for the atmospheric sciences by Peter V. Hobbs PDF

Climatology

By Peter V. Hobbs

ISBN-10: 052147387X

ISBN-13: 9780521473873

Up-to-date and revised, this hugely profitable textual content information the elemental chemical rules required for contemporary reviews of atmospheres, oceans, and Earth and planetary structures. This thoroughly available creation permits undergraduate and graduate scholars with little formal education in chemistry to understand such basic suggestions as chemical equilibria, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, resolution chemistry, acid and base chemistry, oxidation-reduction reactions, and photochemistry. within the significant other quantity advent to Atmospheric Chemistry (also to be released in may perhaps 2000), Peter Hobbs info atmospheric chemistry itself, together with its functions to pollution, acid rain, the ozone gap, and weather swap. jointly those books provide a terrific creation to atmospheric chemistry for a number of disciplines.

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Example text

In the case of ideal solutions , the analogous expression to Eq . g. , l M) at temperature T. The analogous expressions to Eqs . 46) and , AGO = - R * (298 . l 5)lnKc = - 2478 . 47) where Kc is the equilibrium constant for the reaction , which is given by Eq . ( l . 6) . Exercise 2 . 7. Calculate AGO and KP at 25°C fo r the forward reaction N O(g) + 0 3 (g) +:± N Oi(g) + Oi(g) Are the reactants or products favored for the forward reaction at equi­ librium? Solution . From Eq. (2. [N0 2 (g)] + A.

38) 32 Basic physical chemistry - R* T dG = -dp p (2 . 39) Integrating Eq. (2. ,.. 40) where G is the Gibbs free energy per mole at pressure p and tempera­ ture T and G/ the Gibbs free energy at I atm and temperature T. For the general chemical reaction ( 1 . G = [gG(G) + hG(H) + . . ] - [aG(A) + b G(B) + . . ] Using Eq. G = [gG\1(G) + h G¥( H) + . . - aG¥{A) - bGi(B) - . . ] + gR* T l np0 + h R * T lnp H + . . - a R * T l np A - bR * T lnp 8 - ... (2 . 4 1 ) From Eqs. ( l . 42) ilGY- = - R * T In Kp ( 2 .

8) is to be applied to each step . Thi s is called th e principle of detailed balancing; it permits a re l at io ns hi p to be derived between the rate coefficients for the elementary processes and the equilibrium c on s tant for the o ve rall reacti on 2 Exercise 3 . 4 . If the reaction mechanism for . IS N02(g) + 03 (g) � N03 (g) + 02(g) N03(g) + N 0 2 (g) + M � N 205(g) + M (i) (ii) derive an expres s i o n for the equilibrium co nstant Kc for the forward reaction of the overall equation in terms of the forward and reverse rate coefficients for the eleme n ta ry processe s Solution .

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