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By P. Sansonetti

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J. , 190, 6881–6893. , and Dobrindt, U. (2002) A single nucleotide exchange in the wzy gene is responsible for the semirough O6 lipopolysaccharide phenotype and serum sensitivity of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917. J. , 184, 5912–5925. , and 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Karch, H. (2003) Cytolethal distending toxin gene cluster in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H- and O157:H7: characterization and evolutionary considerations. Infect. , 71, 3634–3638. A. (2007) Commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli use a common pilus adherence factor for epithelial cell colonization.

The microbe is killed within the mature phagosome by reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and MPO, and by antimicrobial peptides (AMP). 5 µm in diameter. This process has been studied mainly in macrophages because of the availability of cell lines and the access to genetic tools. Phagocytosis in neutrophils is similar but not identical to that in macrophages. Phagocytosis occurs in two steps. First, upon recognition of microbes, phagosomes are formed and the microbe is engulfed. 3).

All of these actions of CagA may contribute to the development of gastric cancer by providing epithelial cells with a suitable environment for neoplastic transformation. However, it should be noted that almost all CagA-positive H. pylori also contain cagPAI. Importantly, the functional significance of cagA and cagPAI is different. Indeed, in addition to CagA, other bacterial factors such as peptidoglycan are introduced into the host cells via the type IV secretion apparatus which is composed of the gene products encoded by cagPAI [32].

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