Download Atmospheric Turbulence: Models and Methods for Engineering by Hans A. Panofsky PDF

Climatology

By Hans A. Panofsky

ISBN-10: 0471057142

ISBN-13: 9780471057147

Offers, in one quantity, an updated precis of the present wisdom of the statistical features of atmospheric turbulence and an advent to the tools required to use those data to useful engineering difficulties. Covers easy physics and statistics, statistical houses emphasizing their habit just about the floor, and purposes for engineers.

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Estimates of the variance in recorded radiance, after calibration for systematic errors, from groups of pixels obtained over areas located in ground cover types A and B may be obtained and the results substituted into equation (1). The difference in mean radiance level between the areas (in this case A or B) must exceed the half-width of the confidence envelope for the mean radiance difference at the selected confidence level. DUGGIN 30 lib pq Here a I pq pq(A) L(A) A pq A' pq gain of sensor p in bandpass q offset of sensor p in bandpass q spectral response of sensor p in bandpass q spectral upwelling radiance field incident on the sensor upper zero-power bandpass limit for sensor p in bandpass q lower zero-power bandpass limit for sensor p in bandpass q It may be seen that while the sensor gain and offset are sources of systematic variation in the recorded radiance, there will be random variations due to various factors, which will result in variance in the recorded radiance from any ground cover type.

1982; Kriebel 1977; Smith 1983; Suits 1972a,b; Suits and Saffir 1972. Each surface is anisotropic: the anisotropy apparently depending upon surface type, condition, vegetation growth stage and vigor, wavelength, spectral distribution and angular distribution of global irradiance. , Wolfe and Zissis 1979) . 60-SLN) where TH is the time in hours and 'rM is the time in minutes. noon (StN) is the time when the sun crosses the meridian. DUGGIN Radiance path Absorption ~_ _~~ Scattering loss Angle depentent reflected radiance from target Scattered 'sky' radiance Absorption Fig.

Notice that equation (5) takes into account the illumination and view angles. One could also include the slope and aspect of terrestrial targets. It has been shown (Duggin 1974, 1983, Kirchner et al. 1982, Kriebel 1976) that the scalar spectral global irradiance and its polar distribution are time-dependent. This makes it necessary to be careful how ground reflectance measurements are made (e. , Duggin and Cunia 1983). Variations in radiance recorded from across an imaged area will also occur due to global irradiance fluctuations and due to atmospheric fluctuations.

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