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By J Gavin Bremner; Theodore D Wachs
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Although it is more difficult to manipulate the fetal visual, olfactory, tactile, and gustatory environments, it seems likely that if regularly exposed to specific sensory experiences, the fetus would be capable of learning about these as well. Some researchers have devised clever studies to evaluate fetal gustatory learning by manipulation of the taste of amniotic fluid. The fetus is surrounded by amniotic fluid throughout pregnancy. , 2005). Fetal breathing and swallowing of amniotic fluid assist in the development of the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract and allow the fetus to smell and taste different flavors before birth.
DeCasper, A. , & Fifer, W. P. (1980). Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers’ voices. Science, 208, 1174–1176. Fetal Development 29 DeCasper, A. , & Spence, M. J. (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns’ perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavioral and Development, 6, 19–25. DeRegnier, R. A. (2002). Morbidity and mortality of the extremely preterm infant. In L. K. I. ), Triplet pregnancy (pp. 307–318). New York: Parthenon. DeRegnier, R. , Nelson, C. , & Georgieff, M. K. (2000).
2008). The consequences associated with early stunting include metabolic changes, depressed immune function, morbidity, mortality, delayed motor skills, delayed and irregular school attendance, low cognitive scores, and poor academic achievement. , 2008). In settings in which stunting is prevalent, the economic capacity of the entire society may be diminished. Weight-for-length or weight-for-height is the third indicator that is commonly used to measure children’s growth. It provides an estimate of fat stores.