Download Antidiabetic Agents: Recent Advances in their Molecular and by Bernard Testa, Urs A. Meyer PDF

Toxicology

By Bernard Testa, Urs A. Meyer

ISBN-10: 012013327X

ISBN-13: 9780120133277

Quantity 27, the 1st thematic quantity within the sequence, presents an outline of current wisdom in regards to the pharmacological and scientific elements of antidiabetic medications. It goals to stimulate extra attention of attainable options within the improvement of latest antidiabetic medications.

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Additional info for Antidiabetic Agents: Recent Advances in their Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Volume 27

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1%, which increases with urbanization and living standard. In Europe, two-thirds of all Type-II patients are overweight. Obesity and age are regarded as being the most important external risk factors. The average age of Type-II diabetics is 67 years, 70% of the patients being over 70. , 1986). Monozygotic twin studies where one twin already had Type-II diabetes revealed that 91% of the co-twins also developed Type-II diabetes. A strong genetic factor is demonstrated by some 40% of the patients having a first-degree relative with 22 ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS NIDDM (Pyke and Nelson, 1976).

1989) and specificity for ligand binding. , 1989). The 12 amino acids at the C-terminus of the a-subunit also appear to play MECHANISMS OF INSULIN ACTION 31 a role in insulin binding, since the presence of these amino acids (insulin receptor isoform B) results in a decrease in insulin affinity. The coupling of the a-subunit to the extracellular part of the/3-subunit occurs through disulphide bonds. There is some evidence from tryptic cleavage experiments (Frias and Waugh, 1989) that the amino acids involved in the disulphide coupling are located in positions 435,468 or 524 in the a-chain.

Retinopathy) detected by an optician Percentage detected 53 29 16 2 aSource: UK Prospective Diabetes Study (1988). 4 PROGNOSISOF TYPE-II DIABETES MELLITUS Morbidity and mortality in Type-II diabetes is characterized mainly by problems related to macroangiopathy. This, however, is not specific for Type-II, but for the age at which Type-II diabetes mainly appears. Type-II diabetes is frequently accompanied by other macroangiopathic risk factors. Arterial hypertension can be found in 65%, hypertriglyceridaemia in 60% and hypercholesterolaemia in 35% of patients.

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