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Viral

By Joseph F. Albright

ISBN-10: 0896036448

ISBN-13: 9780896036444

George Washington Univ. college of drugs, Washington, D.C. Examines the foremost good points and capabilities of the immune method probably to be altered through the getting older approach. stories the sluggish breakdown of the resistance to an infection within the elderly and discusses lifespan extension and dietary hold up of immunosenescence. DNLM: Immunity--Aged.

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Extra resources for Aging, Immunity, and Infection

Example text

As expected, that list reflects the fact that there are three principal routes of infection: respiratory, urinary, and gastrointestinal (GI). The most compelling explanations of the prevalence of those diseases in the elderly are: 1) age-associated changes in the structure and function of the respiratory, urinary, and gastrointestinal organs; 2) underlying pathological changes resulting from existing disorders (comorbidity); and 3) age-associated decline (dysregulation) in innate (natural) and acquired (adaptive) imunological competence.

The formation of transport proteins, which bind and inactivate antibiotics or escort them out of the bacterial cell, prevents the antibiotics from reaching critical targets. Some of these efflux pumps are drug-specific such as Tet B in enteric bacteria and H. influenzae; others act in a broad, “multidrug” pattern. Tet B is plasmid encoded, although chromosomally mediated tetracycline resistance occurs in some bacteria such as Proteus. Tetracycline resistance conveyed by plasmids is situated near insertion sites and as a consequence those plasmids rather readily acquire other genetic information, which results in broadening the specificity of the resistance.

The extreme variability, versatility, and adaptability of bacteria arise from two processes that are not found in eukaryotic organisms: (a) horizontal (lateral) transfer of genetic material (77); and (b) hypermutability associated with “mutator” strains (78,79). There are three mechanisms for delivering exogenous DNA into recipient bacteria: (a) transformation, which involves bacterial uptake of naked, ambient DNA; (b) transduction, in which new DNA is delivered by bacteriophages; and (c) conjugation, which requires physical contact between donor and recipient cells and, most frequently, transfer of a plasmid.

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