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History

By Gordon Kerr

From the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 to the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2007, an obtainable historical past of the folks, principles, associations, and occasions that experience formed Europe over the past 1,200 years

This fascinating history for beginners provides a coherent map of the jumbled historical past of Europe and the ecu concept that has led up to this element. A continent of numerous disparate peoples, races, and international locations, ruled via various principles, philosophies, religions, and attitudes, Europe still has a typical thread of background operating via it, sewing the lands and peoples of its previous and current into one textile and held jointly by means of the continent’s nice associations: the Church of Rome, the Holy Roman Empire, the ecu Union, person monarchies, exchange firms, and social movements. However, humans have always harbored aspirations to make this titanic territory one. The Romans got here shut and some centuries later, the rules for a very good eu country have been laid with the construction of the Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon overreached himself in trying to create a European-wide Empire—as did Adolf Hitler. Now, Europe is as shut because it ever has been to being one entity, but Europeans nonetheless hold to national independence. 

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Extra resources for A Short History of Europe: From Charlemagne to the Treaty of Lisbon

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Like many premodern societies, the Roman state relied on brutal and spectacular punishments to protect the community from criminals and outsiders. The savagery of Roman penalties is well evoked by MacMullen 1986. 18 However, citizenship was not the only privilege recognised in the administration of justice. The honestiores – senators, equestrians, decurions (not all of whom were Roman citizens) and veterans – also enjoyed some protections against the punitive and coercive powers of the magistrates.

On taxation in the Roman empire, see especially Corbier 1991, Corbier 1988, Brunt 1981 (= RIT pp. 324–46) with Brunt 1990 pp. 531–40, Neesen 1980 and Jones 1974. Ius Italicum: Jacques and Scheid 1990 pp. 243–5. g. Neesen 1980 pp. 117 and 121). They certainly enjoyed this privilege in Egypt (Wallace 1938 p. 407 n. 24). But the fact that Vespasian is recorded as having granted the colony of Caesarea immunity from tributum capitis (Dig. 7) suggests that Roman citizens were not automatically exempt in all provinces.

1). This usage is not limited to literature. e. referring to ‘the allies’ as a class), socii embraces all Rome’s dependants. It is a term of the widest application, capable of including allied kingdoms and nominally free peoples as well as the inhabitants of the provinces proper. 49 By the second century ce, we will see, it could even encompass provincial citizens. 50 This section 46 47 48 49 50 See the examples at Saddington 1970 pp. 90, 94–5 and 107. v. 9–15. In Cicero, for example, the ciuis~socius dyad occurs twenty-six times; ciuis~peregrinus only six times.

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