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By Petr Sgall, Ladislav Nebeský, Alla Goralčíková, Eva Hajičová

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The speaker and the hearer may be aware of such a distinction in the closeness of the relation of the two adverbials to the verb even in (3), where it is not rendered by their position. ) (3) Vcera pfisel kvuli Karlovi. ) Therefore in the specification of the tectogrammatical level by the first component of our generative description, we use besides the relation of depen­ dence (described by the functors), also means corresponding to those used in a phrase-structure grammar. Thus our first component has the form of a con­ text-free phrase-structure grammar,25 and not that of a dependency grammar (as defined formally by Gaifman, _1 9 6 1 or Hays, 1 96 1 , 1 964, and further analyzed by Novak, 1966b).

26 The second member of the pair of transducers restores the original word order (or makes some changes in it, when necessary-in particular, the fourth transducer changes the position of members of constructions in which the word order on the morphemic level is not in accordance with the con­ dition of projectivity, and places prepositions and conjunctions at the beginning of noun or verb phrases) , 2 7 Furthermore, this second member changes the symbols of the higher level into the corresponding ones of the next lower level (choosing the realizing symbol in accordance with the pro­ perties of the governing symbol ; cf.

The set of actual morphs cannot be speci­ fied simply as the set of strings realizing morphemes, because of cases of horizontal asymmetry ; this difficulty, as is well known, can be overcome in a generative description, where cases of horizontal asymmetry play the role of individual deviations, but not that of counterexamples. The elementary units of the morphemic level are the semes. ). The relations of type C on this level are similar to those on the phonetic level (cf. Section 2. 2). The complex units of the two levels of sentence structure were set forth in Section 2.

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