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By William Smothers
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Extra info for 8th Automotive Materials Conference
A theoretical expression for the mixed potential (output voltage) of an oxygen sensor, V o , is as follows (derivation given elsewherelo): vo=fco*V c o - A v c d + (1 -fco)*(vo, -Avo,) (3 1 wheref,,, for the fraction of CO cell voltage contributing to sensor voltage, is: f ~ ~ = K C ~ e c . KCOCa Kcoca*Pco’ =Aco/Ao, (6) Here, Vo2 and Vcoare the cell voltages given by Eqs. 1 and 2 above, AVO, and AVco are deviations of the O2and CO cell voltages from linear i-V characteristics caused by overvoltage and polarization effects, ROp’and RcO’ are linearized slopes of i-V curves for 0, and CO cells which are determined by electrode reaction kinetics, KcOec is an equilibrium adsorption constant for CO involved in electrochemical processes, KCocais an equilibrium constant for chemical adsorption of CO on the electrode, andAco/Ao2is aratio of the electrochemically active areas associated with CO and O2 cells.
277 --- lm, I M "C -- - _ - - - -6_0 '_C - -. -. 6W"C ---. -. I I I - 6MI w - s I \ BM- d \ B B a- I 200 Fig. 1. Theoretical voltage curvesfor an ideal oxygen sensor. - 0. Sensor Temperature I 3 I 14 ~ AIR-FUEL RATIO I I5 I 16 Fig. 2. Typical measured voltage curves for an actual oxygen sensor. Exha ust Gas El ect rode pOi(exh1, Pt 1 Air Reference Electrode Stabilized Zr02 1 Pt, p02(ref) L Fig. 3, Electrochemical reactions corresponding to an oxygen concentration cell. Theoretical 'Voltaqe Curves 1000 E c m w 600 c3 5 0 > 0" 400 In z W In 200 13 AIR-FUEL RATIO 14 15 AIR-FUEL RATIO 1 (4 Fig.
Materials considerations for this design are similar to the LVDT design for expansion coefficient matching. Additionally, element friction induces hysteresis, resistive compound coefficients change, and moving contacts wear which by design may be reduced to some tolerable level. Strain gage pressure sensors operate on the principle of measuring directly or indirectly the stress applied to a force-summing element. A representive strain gage sensor design and schematic is shown in Fig. 6. Strain-sensitive ohmic elements are bonded or deposited on a metal diaphragm.